Frederick Walker – A brilliant Career cut short

Frederick Walker (Source: Wikipedia)

Frederick Walker was born in Marylebone, London, on the 26th May 1840. His father William Henry, a jeweller, died when Walker was still a young child. Mother Ann thus supported herself and her eight children by doing embroidery. At the age of 15, Walker was briefly apprenticed to architects Messrs Baker and Harris. When he was 17, he enrolled at Leigh’s Art School (est. 1848, it still exists under the name of Heatherley School of Fine Art) and in 1858 at the Royal Academy Schools. Both his early biographers, Sir Claude Phillips (published in 1894) and his brother-in-law John George Marks (published in 1896), claim that he was a very unreliable attendee at both establishments. He also sketched extensively from the antique sculpture at the British Museum, especially the Elgin Marbles of which he later had a plaster cast in his studio. Gleeson White, author of English Illustration ‘The Sixties’: 1855-1870 (published in 1897) even suggests that “[..] his male figures seem nearly always youth from the Parthenon in peasant costume.”

Towards the end of 1858, he became an apprentice for three days per week in the workshop of the illustrator and wood engraver Josiah Wood Whymper (1813-1903). There, he became life-long friends with fellow employees John William North (1842-1924), Charles Green (1836-1899) and George John Pinwell (1842-1875). The apprenticeship lasted two years, and during that time he became a member of ‘The Langham’, a circle of mainly young illustrators, which had its origin in the Artists’ Society and was founded in 1838; its offshoot, the London Sketch Club (est. 1898), is now based in Chelsea. Walker began working for the Dalziel brothers in 1859 as well and started designing illustrations for journals such as Good Words, Once a Week and Everybody’s Journal. Two of his earliest published works were Peasant Proprietorship in Once a Week on the 18th February 1860 and God help our Men at Sea, which accompanied the poem of the same name by Samuel Reynolds Hole (1819-1904), a week later in the same journal. Marks explains that the established wood-engraver Joseph Swain (1820-1909) gave Walker the poem to illustrate after he had seen examples of his work.

Peasant Proprietorship, Once a Week Vol.2
1860, PL4612
God help our Men at Sea, Once a Week Vol.2
1860, PL4610 

In November 1860, Walker finished his apprenticeship at Whymper and commenced working as a freelancer. Around the beginning of the following year, the artist was contacted by George Smith, the owner of The Cornhill Magazine, and asked whether he would be interested in illustrating William Makepeace Thackeray’s (1811-1863) The Adventures of Philip. When Walker went to meet the popular author, Thackeray set his nervous, young visitor the challenge to draw him while he was shaving. Having completed that task to the writer’s satisfaction, the illustrator got the commission. However, initially he was only required to copy Thackeray’s own designs from February onwards (Thackeray had illustrated the first part of the novel in the January edition himself.). Not happy with this situation, he demanded more creative freedom; this was duly granted, starting with the May 1861 issue of Cornhill Magazine. The serialisation of the novel ran until August 1862.

(Click on images to enlarge them.)

Thackeray and Walker established a genial relationship, and Walker went on to illustrate some of the author’s daughter’s books, too. Lady Ritchie (née Anne Isabella Thackeray, 1837-1919) wrote, for example, The Story of Elizabeth (1863) and The Village on the Cliff (1867). Walker’s brother-in-law relates that the artist happened to stop at the author’s house on Christmas Eve 1863 only to hear that his friend had just died. Marks quotes Lady Ritchie: “When my father died, I remember being touched and affected by hearing some one say that Mr Walker had come running to the house, and that one of the household met him wandering about the stairs in tears.” Walker attended Thackeray’s funeral on the 30th December.

(Click on images to enlarge them.)

Frederick Walker was not content with being an illustrator. He worked tirelessly on becoming a successful painter in oils and watercolours as well. The Lost Path (introduced further below) was the first painting he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1863. From the late 1860s onwards, he would regularly take part in their shows with pictures such as Bathers (1867), Vagrants (1868, see further below), The Old Gate (1869), The Harbour of Refuge (1872) and The Right of Way (1875). The Plough, his entry for 1871, was so well-received that he was elected associate member (A.R.A.) of the eminent institution. He also became an associate member of the Old Watercolour Society in 1864 and full member in 1866, and frequently showed his work in their summer and winter shows. A watercolour adaption of Philip at Church, an illustration originally created for Thackery’s above-mentioned novel, was the piece with which he had applied for membership. (In 1867, Philip in Church won a second-class medal at the International Exhibition in Paris.) Walker was also a member of ‘The Clique’, a group of painters around St. John’s Wood that met on a regular basis to scrutinise each other’s work and give advice. Marks remarks that his brother-in-law was close friends with most of its members but was also very sensitive when it came to criticism. 

Frederick Walker, Philip in Church, c. 1862, Tate (N03515), digital image © Tate released under Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND (3.0 Unported)

Walker specialised in scenes of the social realism genre; people going about their daily routine in bucolic or urban surroundings. He paid very close attention to details, such as dress patterns and folds and the accurate depiction of nature. In that respect, he was influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites who, in turn, were admirers of his work; John Everett Millais (1829-1896) was a friend. Walker’s cat ‘Eel-eye’ was apparently the model for the black kitten in Millais’ A Flood (1870, now in the Manchester Art Gallery).

Although he was aware that fellow members of the Old Watercolour Society disapproved, Walker liked using plenty of Chinese White pigment in his paintings. One of his many caricatures he included in his letters to friends and family, shows him holding a huge tube of Chinese White; the caption reads “What would “The Society” say if it could only see me?” He also worked with palette knife and razor. He was very careful to find the right props and models for his images and would send his family out on errands to find him, for example,  a photograph of a certain statue of Charles I, because he liked the horse very much, or a place where a “white horse and his harness are to be hired – a cart horse or a brewer’s horse”, so that he could paint it. Family members like his sisters Polly and Mary were also not spared from being eternalised on canvas in the guise of young mothers or gypsies. Even a depiction of his mother appears in the background of Philip in Church. Then again, she probably did not mind as she was very supportive of her son’s artistic career.

What would “The Society” say if it could only see me?, from Life and Letters of Frederick Walker A.R.A., by John George Marks, 1896 (Source:

His circle of friends and acquaintances included fellow artists such as John Leech (1817-1864), Sir Edwin Landseer (1802-1873), and Sir John Tenniel (1820-1914); writers Mark Lemon (1809-1870), for whom he did some drawings for Punch, and Wilkie Collins (1824-1889). Walker created the poster for Collins’s 1871 play, The Woman in White, which was based on his ‘sensation novel’ of the same name that had been published in 1860. The politician and art dealer, Sir William Angew (1825-1910) also became a patron and friend.

Frederick Walker, The Woman in White, 1871, Tate (N02080), digital image © Tate released under Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND (3.0 Unported)

Walker loved nature and went for long walks in the countryside. He often painted outdoors and would recount in his correspondence inspiration he had found on his excursions, curious encounters with locals, or any mishaps that would befall him whilst out and about. He thus explained to one of his sisters: “You see, as I have to cook the composition up, taking a bit here and a bit there, I have to drag the canvas to all manner of places and nearly put a hole in it getting over a hedge this evening; my poor nails were numbed.”

The Walker family was close-knit, and the artist, who never married, lived for most of his life with his mother, his sisters Fanny and Mary (before she married Marks in January 1864) and his brother John in one household in St. Petersburgh Place, Bayswater, London, from 1863 until his death. He had an affectionate relationship with his mother and often called her ‘the Missus’ in letters to his siblings. They often stayed at a cottage in Cookham, Berkshire, which belonged to his mother and where he went on long rambles during the summer.

Our Village (Cookham), print after a watercolour by the artist (Source: Wikipedia)

The artist did not travel extensively abroad, because – so his brother-in-law writes – he often suffered from homesickness when away from his family and homeland. However, he went to Paris in 1863 and 1867, to Venice in 1868 and to Algiers in 1873. The latter voyage was conducted specifically in the hope of improving his health (Walker suffered from tuberculosis). He also enjoyed spending time in the Scottish Highlands, staying at friends’ homes and going salmon fishing. It was during a trip in the Highlands, that he finally succumbed to his illness. He died at St. Fillans, Perthshire, on the 4th June 1875 – not two weeks after his 35th birthday. His sister Fanny* had been informed about his worsening condition and had managed to travel and be at his bedside when he died. He was buried at Cookham where his mother and youngest brother had already been laid to rest. John had already died at only 22 in 1868 from the same disease, as had his mother in 1874. Fanny, who was very affected by the many deaths in her family (brother Henry, too, had died unexpectedly in 1866), died only a year later in 1876 at Marks’s house and was also buried at Cookham.

The obituaries were full of praise and sympathetic to the tragedy of a promising career that had been cut short.

The Pall Mall Gazette wrote that “[…] it may be safely said that for some years past he has stood in the very front of English artists.” Expanding on his work, they explained that “Mr Walker had a stronger hold on reality than almost any of his contemporaries could boast. All his invention, whether in colour or design, was in truth the direct result of a fresh and profound study in a field that seemed to have been already well trodden.”

The Times announced on the day of his funeral: “Today will be laid in the secluded churchyard of Cookham, by the side of his mother and one of his brothers, Frederick Walker, A.R.A., a young painter of rare genius, cut off prematurely in the springtime of his powers.”

Walker’s friends and admirers were deeply saddened by his early death. Fellow Royal Academician and sculptor Henry Hugh Armstead (1828-1905) created a medallion portrait that was placed in Cookham church. It was, as the artist’s brother-in-law called it, “a labour of love”. A memorial exhibition was also organised in 1876 at the Deschamps Gallery in New Bond Street, London, at which almost all works he had created throughout his career were brought together, and which received very positive feedback by its audience.

*Another source says that Mary was at Walker’s bedside, but reading Marks’s account of the artist’s death, I would conclude that it was Fanny.

Love in Death

The Lost Path, 1863, oil on canvas ©The Makins Collection, Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND (Source:
Love in Death (The Lost Path), Good Words, 1862, PL4670

The Lost Path was a reworking of an earlier illustration he had designed for Dora Greenwell’s poem Love in Death, published in the March issue of Good Words in 1862. Although it was hung up high in the North Room of the Royal Academy in 1863 – Walker was still a young, unknown artist after all, and more established painters’ works would be placed more prominently – it received favourable reviews and was sold for £90. According to Marks, Walker forwarded the cheque, that he had received for the painting straight to his mother with the words: “[…] and the reason I send it to you, dear, is that you should break into it as soon as you like.”

The image shows a mother with her infant in a snowstorm at night. Marks explains that the stand-in for the young woman is the artist’s younger sister Mary. Apparently, salt was used as a substitute for snow as there was none to be had in March when the picture was painted. The scene is based on a true event that took place in Canada just before Christmas 1821. Lucy Goodell Blake and her husband Harrison had visited relatives and got lost in the snow in the Green Mountains, Vermont, on their way home. Harrison was discovered alive the next morning, but Lucy had not survived the freezing cold, although her husband had given her his overcoat to keep warm. She was only 28-years old. Lucy had the couple’s baby Rebecca with her; she was found a little distance from her mother’s body, wrapped-up in her father’s coat and miraculously alive.

Greenwell was not the only one who commemorated the tragic incident in words; the American writer Seba Smith (1792-1868) had already composed a ballad called The Mother perishing in a Snowstorm in 1843.

The Vagrants

Frederick Walker, The Vagrants, 1868, Tate (N01209), digital image © Tate released under Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND (3.0 Unported)
The Vagrants, Once a Week N. S. vol. 1, 1866, PL4722

The Vagrants is another engraving that the artist reworked into an oil painting and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1868. The engraving had been published in Once a Week in January 1866. A letter to his sister Mary at the beginning of that month reveals that he was undecided whether he should call it Vagrants or Wanderers. In fact, he called it Wanderers throughout his January correspondence:

January 17 – “…I have decided upon doing, as quickly as possible, an oil picture (small) of the ‘Wanderers,’ a thing I did at the beginning of the year for Once a Week. I have forgetting how stunning a subject it is, and indeed could not lay my hand on the book containing my proofs, &c., but I found it this morning, and I find there is a little mine of wealth as far as subject is concerned […]”

His sister Polly (‘Poll’) was the model for the young standing woman, and the background is based on the area around Beddington. The painting was shown at the RA in 1868. As in Refreshment, there are variations in the painting compared to the engraving. Whereas in the oil painting a young, rather pathetic looking, boy clings to his older sister, who is staring pensively at the smouldering fire, the black and white images shows a young girl standing next to and looking at her mother and a boy busying himself at the back of the cart. 

Walker also created a smaller ink drawing of the scene for the 1870 winter exhibition of the Old Water Colour Society and a watercolour of the standing woman, which was shown in public for the first time at the memorial show in 1876.

The Summer Woods

The Summer Woods, Good Words, 1862, PL4672
Frederick Walker, Refreshment, 1864, Tate (N02687), digital image © Tate released under Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND (3.0 Unported)

This illustration was first created for William Forsyth’s poem The Summer Woods which was published in Good Words in 1862. Walker painted a watercolour showing the same scene only a short while later. He changed a few details such as the patterns of the dresses. The fresh colours of the watercolour match the cheerful tone of the poem. However, the painter called the painting Refreshment rather than The Summer Woods, possibly to let the image speak for itself, independent of the poem. It was one of the first works he exhibited with the Old Water Colour Society. It was shown at their 1864 summer exhibition.

Karen Westendorf

(Curatorial & Technical Assistant)


For a full list of Frederick Walker’s works in the School of Art collection:

Huxtable, Sally-Anne.”Order and Disarray: Two Watercolours by Frederick Walker.” Life, Legend and Landscape – Victorian Drawings & Watercolours, edited by Joanna Selbourne, The Courtauld Gallery, 2011, pp. 32-35.

Marks, John George. Life and Letters of Frederick Walker, A.R.A.. Macmillan, 1896. (available online: 

Phillips, Claude. Frederick Walker and his Works. Seeley, 1894. (available online:;view=1up;seq=206…-a0366459565

Florence Ann (1838-1920) and Adelaide Sophia Claxton (1841-1927)

Adelaide Claxton, John and Charles Watkins, 1860s, albumen silver print, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Wikipedia)

Florence and Adelaide were the daughters of painter Marshall Claxton (1813-1881), who specialised in historical scenes and portraiture. Florence was born during her parents’ stay in Florence, where her father furthered his artistic skills. By the time Adelaide was born, the family already lived in London again.

It was moving time for the family again in 1850, when Marshall Claxton decided to try his luck in Australia. Despite being a Royal Academy gold-medallist he had had only middling success in England. Relatives of his wife’s had emigrated there before which must have given them a good idea of what life was like on the other side of the world. Despite receiving some commissions and credit for staging Australia’s first art exhibition, his career did not get the boost that he had hoped for. The family thus relocated to India in 1854, where he managed to sell some of the paintings he had brought all the way from England. The Claxtons returned to London, travelling via Ceylon and Egypt, around 1857. Catherine Flood observes in an article in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography that these early travels equipped “them with something of an outsider’s perspective on Victorian society,” which might have helped with their satirical portrayals of their contemporaries.

Florence Claxton, John and Charles Watkins, 1860s, albumen silver print, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Wikipedia)

There were few opportunities for women to train as professional artists at that time so the Claxton sisters received most of their artistic education from their father. Marshall Claxton gave ‘ladies only’ classes at his home in Kensington to supplement the family income. Florence and Adelaide also studied for a short time at Cary’s Academy, an art school that had been founded by artist Henry Sass (1788-1844) in 1818 and one of the first to admit female students. It was impossible for women to enrol at the Royal Academy (RA), although their works were accepted for its exhibitions. A group of female artists, including Florence Claxton, launched a petition to the Royal Academy in 1859. The letter was sent to all members of the RA and published in the Athenaeum. They demanded a change in the rules to allow female students, but unfortunately without success.

Florence and Adelaide Claxton embarked on their careers as illustrators supposedly for financial reasons. It is conceivable that they would have preferred to make a living solely as painters, but it was difficult for female artists to become established in the male-dominated art world. Florence highlighted this problem in a series of six satirical pen and ink drawings called Scenes from the Life of a Female Artist, which she exhibited at the Society of Female Artists in 1858. The society had been founded by writer Harriet Grote (1792-1878) and artist Mrs Robertson Blaine in 1857 to give support and training to women artists. It exists to this day and is now called The Society of Women Artists.

Florence started working for the Illustrated Times in 1858 and according to Ellen Clayton, author of English female artists (1876), was the first woman to draw her designs directly on the woodblock. Catherine Flood, curator at the Victoria and Albert Museum, explains that it was believed “that women were physically and mentally better suited to dextrous and repetitive crafts than expressive art” which meant that they were rather employed to engrave the woodblock than to design and draw an image on the wood. The idea was that women simply lacked the imagination and technical skill to produce quality illustrations. Florence and Adelaide Claxton, and their contemporary Mary Ellen Edwards (1838-1934), proved these assumptions wrong and led the way for other female illustrators.

Adelaide Claxton followed her sibling’s footsteps when she received her first illustrating commission from the London Society in 1862. She became a frequent contributor to Judy, the great competitor of Punch. Flood observes that the sisters carved “a niche” for themselves with their humorous depictions of society. They avoided vulgarity and aggression – undoubtedly also to uphold their respectable reputation, which was imperative for a Victorian woman – but nevertheless cast a critical and satirical eye on their contemporaries. This was received well by publishers, in fact they became so well-known that magazines used their names to increase sales. Henry Vizetelly (1820-94), co-founder of the Illustrated London News, Pictorial Times and Illustrated Times, described the Claxton sisters as “very smart young ladies” who “cleverly satirised the social follies of both hemispheres.”

Although the Claxtons and Edwards were trailblazers of their profession, they were not the first female illustrators of the 19th– century. One of the earliest was probably Louise Sheridan. She contributed to Comic Offering and Comic Magazine during the 1830s. Eleanor Vere Boyle (1825-1916) and Jemima Blackbourn had already created images for magazines during the 1850s, but they had no real need to earn money and saw themselves as ‘amateurs’. In general, Victorian middle-class women who made their own living were often looked upon with suspicion and had to work hard to be accepted by male peers and the public. It is therefore remarkable that the burgeoning periodical press, from the 1850s onwards, became an important industry to offer women the chance to earn a regular income as engravers, illustrators and even as editors and contributors of articles. Charles Henry Ross (1835-97), editor of Judy employed not only Adelaide Claxton but also his wife Marie Duval (real name Isabelle Émilie de Tessier, 1847-90), a cartoonist of French origin. Editors such as James Hogg (1806-88) of London Society would even pay female illustrators the same rates as their male counterparts. Given that equal payment is still an on-going topic in the 21st century, this might seem surprisingly progressive.

In the course of their illustrating careers Adelaide and Florence Claxton worked for publications such as The Churchman’s Family Magazine, Illustrated London News, Illustrated Times, London Society and Queen, a magazine especially for female readers.

However, the pioneering sisters not only created innumerable images for magazines, but also exhibited paintings. Adelaide’s The Standard-Bearer, for example, was exhibited at the Society of Female Artists’ exhibition in 1859. It plays with the military term and turns it into a newspaper boy running after an omnibus and carrying The Standard in his hand. An engraved version of the oil painting was published in the Illustrated Times in March 1859. In 1860, Florence showed her watercolour The Choice of Paris: An Idyll at the Portland Gallery, London, in which she satirised the works of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. It lampooned the brotherhood’s obsession with medievalism, red-haired ‘stunners’ and their ‘true to nature’ painting style. It caused such a stir that a large reproduction was published in the Illustrated London News in June the same year.

In June 1868, Florence married Ernest Farrington (died between 1881 and 1891), a French photographer and engineer, in Paris and, apart from exhibiting her watercolours occasionally, ceased her artistic career. She might have lived abroad for several years; however, she was back in the UK at the time of the 1881 census and stated her profession as ‘artist china painter’, a role that she might have taken up for financial reasons. She taught the technique and exhibited her works as well. Around 1911, she moved to the Isle of Wright; there she was found dead at her residence Grafton House, Sandown, in 1920. It is believed that she ended her life deliberately by taking an overdose of barbiturates; she sat in her armchair and had made her bed and prepared some presents. Although her decision was most likely down to worries about failing health and money, the coroner probably officially concluded that she took the medication while ‘of an unsound mind’. Otherwise, she would have been denied a burial on consecrated ground as committing suicide was regarded a sin.

Wonderland, Adelaide Claxton, c. 1870, watercolour (Source: Wikipedia)

Adelaide married George Gordon Turner (1852-1905), the son of a clergyman, in 1874 and had a son at the age of 43. Unlike her sister, she carried on working as an illustrator during the 1870s and 1880s, particularly for Judy. Both, she and her husband gave their profession as ‘artist’ in the 1881 census and lived in Chiswick, West London. Adelaide showed her watercolours at exhibitions, and her ghost paintings, were much in demand. She also created drawings for advertisements for women’s clothing. In the census of 1891, she still called herself an ‘Artist in Colour Black & White’. In addition, she tried her hand at inventing from the 1890s onwards and patented, for example, the ‘Claxton Ear-cap’ which was still in production in the 1920s. She also invented the ‘Claxton Classical Corset’ that was less restricting than conventional ones – she was a member of the Rational Dress Association. The reputation she had gained as an artist helped promoting these products and she designed the adverts herself. By 1911 lived with her son in Barnes, South London. She died aged 86 in 1927.

Claxton Ear-Cap
One of three corrective ear cap of pink ribbon, elastic and net in box, patented by Claxton, English, 1925-1945. Three quarter top view, general arrangement. Black background. Credit: Science Museum, London. CC BY

These are just some examples of their work (larger versions of the examples via the ‘gallery’ below):

Riddles of Love, London Society Vol. 17, 1870, Adelaide Claxton, PL601
Riddles of Love, London Society Vol. 17, 1870, Adelaide Claxton, PL601

Riddles of Love

 Riddles of Love is the only novel by Sidney Laman Blanchard (1825-83), son of journalist and poet Samuel Laman Blanchard (1804-45). After his parents had died shortly one after the other, Blanchard became a journalist and editor; he also worked as Benjamin Disraeli’s (1804-81) private secretary in 1851. In 1854, he moved to Calcutta where he worked for an Anglo-Indian newspaper, a job he quit during the Indian Munity in 1857. He also married whilst on the subcontinent. Having returned to Britain in 1864, he supported himself with writing articles for various publishers. Blanchard then returned to India in 1873 and took on the role as assistant editor for the Times of India. However, he left the paper after having problems with the management. He tried but ultimately failed to manage The Indian Statesman, and returned to England in 1880. He died in Brighton in 1883.

Adelaide Claxton illustrated Blanchard’s Riddles of Love for London Society. It was serialised between 1869 and 1870 and published as a three-volume edition in 1871 by Hurst and Blankett. The novel is set partly in England and India. Whilst the story is quite conventional and deals with – at that time – typical issues such as the trials of finding a suitable partner and making a respectable living, it also offers a tiny glimpse into the life of the Brits in India during the Raj, obviously based on the author’s own experience. However, sadly, the only irredeemable villain happens to be an Indian. As much as this would be thought of as wholly politically incorrect to readers nowadays, many Victorians would not have bat an eye-lid at such race-related prejudice.

Ye Spring Fashions, London Society Vol. 1, 1862, Florence Claxton, PL612
Ye Spring Fashions, London Society Vol. 1, 1862, Florence Claxton, PL612

Ye Spring Fashions 

With this image, Florence Claxton makes fun of her fellow countrywomen’s thirst for French fashion. It is quite possible that the lady, handing out the document – or might it be an edict – named ‘La Mode’ to one of her followers, is Empress Eugénie, given that the man at her side looks very much like France’s monarch Napoleon III. Eugénie had become a style icon during the Second Empire (1852-70) and thus was not only the ‘queen’ but even the ‘empress’ of fashion. Equipped with the latest examples of hats, bonnets, caps and patterns, her excited disciples tumble down the stairs of the vogue-heaven that is France towards the shores of Great Britain across the Channel. There, eager women and girls are waiting for news on what is fashionable that season. Even Britannia cannot resist the thrill of la mode and has donned a crinoline on top of her customary toga. A cash box and moneybags are at the ready to be spent on the most recent fads. A lone man stands bewildered in the background, probably worried about his hard-earned money soon to be lavished on expensive fripperies. Only the boy deliberately looks away in disgust as if to make it clear that he wants nothing to do with this nonsense.

Academy Belles, London Society Vol. 12, 1867, Adelaide Claxton, PL591
Academy Belles, London Society Vol. 12, 1867, Adelaide Claxton, PL591

Academy Belles 

Adelaide Claxton created this image to accompany a poem of the same name that was published in the London Society in 1867. The anonymous poet gives a satirical account of pretty young ladies at art exhibitions; of how they distract earnest (male) viewers from the art works and how the opinions on art of these young women cannot be taken altogether seriously.

Click: Academy Belles for the poem.

The Daily Governess, London Society Vol. 1, 1862, Adelaide Claxton,  PL563
The Daily Governess, London Society Vol. 1, 1862, Adelaide Claxton, PL563

The Daily Governess 

Unlike Adelaide Claxton’s many satirical designs, this is a more sober engraving which highlights the plight of the governess. Becoming a governess was a respectable way of earning a living for many single, middle-class women without sufficient private means or family support. They were often in the awkward position of being slightly too ‘genteel’ to be considered a servant and on the other hand, as a paid employee, they could not be considered as a member of the family. In other words, the status of the governess lay between the boundaries of the upstairs/downstairs world. Many of them lived with the families they worked for, but this governess seems to commute between her own home and her work place on a daily basis. On this particular day shown, the weather is dreadful; her clothes are dripping with rainwater and her veil is flowing in the wind, revealing her careworn face. The wet ground also obliges her to lift her skirt, and thus show her ankles – a risqué sight for any proper Victorian woman. Claxton appears to put her on par with the stray dog in the background – both are, in their own way, outcasts; who else would be seen outside on such an unfriendly day? Not only is she arriving at work in this pitiful state, she also has to endure the indignity of having to ring the bell for the servants’ entrance and not that for visitors. If she is lucky, she might get a hot cup of tea in the kitchen, a chance to tidy herself up and warm herself at the hearth before she goes to see her charges. If not, she might have to go ‘upstairs’ straight away and be vulnerable to possible criticism from her employer about being negligent about her appearance and ridicule from the children – not to mention a cold due to the wet dress. What humble abode she calls her home she might have arrived from and whether she will receive a friendly or a hostile welcome is left to the imagination of the viewer; however, Adelaide Claxton certainly manages to convey with this single image that the lot of a governess is not an easy one and should be considered with benevolence.

The Young Lady’s New Years Dream  and The Young Gentleman’s New Years Dream 

The Claxton sisters sometimes collaborated in their work. The Young Lady’s New Years Dream by Adelaide and Florence’s The Young Gentleman’s New Years Dream, for example, appeared on opposite pages in the London Society in 1862.

The Young Lady's New Year's Dream, London Society Vol. 2, 1862, Adelaide Claxton, PL566
The Young Lady’s New Year’s Dream, London Society Vol. 2, 1862, Adelaide Claxton, PL566

The Young Gentleman's New Year's Dream, London Society Vol. 2, 1862, Florence Claxton, PL611
The Young Gentleman’s New Year’s Dream, London Society Vol. 2, 1862, Florence Claxton, PL611

(Click on images to enlarge them.)

Karen Westendorf (Curatorial & Technical Assistant)

More examples are available on the School of Art collections database: (Florence Claxton) (Adelaide Claxton)


Blanchard, Sidney Leman. Riddles of Love. Spring Street Books, 2013.

Cherry, Deborah. Painting Women: Victorian Women Artists. Routledge, 1993.

Cooke, Simon, Goldman, Paul. Reading Victorian Illustration, 1855-1875; Spoils of the Lumber Room. Ashgate, 2012.

De Maré, Eric. The Victorian Woodblock Illustrators. Gordon Fraser, 1980.

Hadjiafxendi, Kyriaki, Zakreski, Patricia eds. Crafting the Woman Professional in the Long Nineteenth Century: Artistry and Industry in Britain. Ashgate, 2013.

Humble, Nicola, Reynolds, Kimberley. Victorian Heroines: Representations of Femininity in Nineteenth-century Literature and Art. Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993.

Van Remoortel, Marianne. Women, Work and the Victorian Periodical: living by the press. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

Mary Ellen Edwards – A Victorian Woman Illustrator

Mary Ellen Edwards (later Mrs Freer, later Mrs Staples) by Unknown photographer, albumen carte-de-visite with black masking paint, 1860s, © National Portrait Gallery, London

Illustrator Mary Ellen Edwards was born to Mary (née Johnson, c.1809-1898) and Downes Edwards (c. 1805-1882) on the 6th November 1838 on her father’s farm in Surbiton just outside London. The family had nine children of which two died in infancy. The Edwards moved frequently. Her father was an engineer and inventor and had by 1848 enough funds to built a family residence, Ravenscliffe in Douglas on the Isle of Man. Eventually they settled in London and lived there at various addresses in fashionable parts of town such as Pimlico, South Kensington and Chelsea.

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Joseph Wolf – “The best all-round animal painter that ever lived.”

Joseph Wolf, Lance Chalkin, 1890, the Zoological Society of London (Source: Wikipedia)
Joseph Wolf, Lance Chalkin, 1890, the Zoological Society of London (Source: Wikipedia)

Joseph (Mathias) Wolf was born on the 22nd January 1820 in the little village of Mörz, near Koblenz, Germany. His father, Anton Wolf (1788-1859) was a farmer and headman of the village. As a boy, Wolf loved spending time outdoors, observing and sketching the local wildlife. Sometimes, he would shoot specimens to dissect them at home in order to achieve a better understanding of their anatomy, plumage or fur. He would also capture live birds and mammals to draw them. He built special traps to catch large birds of prey without harming them. His obsession, apparently, earned him the unflattering nickname ‘bird fool’ from his father. Watching wildlife became a lifelong passion and, although he killed some for study, he abhorred the mindless slaughter of animals that many Victorians regarded as a ‘manly’ pastime and sport. According to his biographer and friend Alfred Herbert Palmer (1853-1931), son of artist Samuel Palmer (1805-81), Wolf accused these ‘sportsmen’ of having “no desire to know about a thing. Their only desire is to kill it.” He also called man “the most destructive and carnivorous animal in the world.”

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The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club by Charles Dickens with illustrations by Phiz (Household Words, 1874)

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St. Valentine’s Day

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The origins of St. Valentine’s Day, or of the concept that a St. Valentine is the patron of lovers, are hazy.

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Wilkie Collins’s Armadale

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Wilkie (William) Collins was born on the 08th of January 1824 at 11 New Cavendish Street, St. Marylebone, Middlesex, and died on the 23rd of September 1889 in Wimpole Street, London. The successful author wrote popular, so-called ‘sensation novels’ such as The Woman in White, which was first serialised in Charles Dickens’ magazine All Year Round 1859-60 and then published in book-form in 1860, and The Moonstone which was also at first issued in instalments in All Year Round before being sold in book-form (1868).

Armadale was initially serialised in the Cornhill Magazine between November 1864 and June 1866 before being available in the bookshops. Collins received a generous commission of £5,000 for his story from the proprietor of Cornhill Magazine, George Murray Smith (1824-1901). The Illustrator, painter and wood-engraver George Housman Thomas (1824-1868) created the illustrations.

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